Friday, February 21, 2020
The Nineteenth Century America - Essay Example In the year 1819 the Transcontinental Treaty proposed by the then American President John Quincy Adams was signed by the United States and Spain. This treaty reinforced the American belief of territorial expansion. The desire to spread towards the west increased when John Jacob Astor expanded his fur trade company to the Pacific Northwest. With trade expansions the legendary Ã¢â¬Å"mountain menÃ¢â¬ became popular as they were financially facilitated by the fur trade companies to move to other countries in search of profit. During the 1830s and 1840s the Americans expanded their territory westward towards the Pacific Ocean. Besides economic there were other reasons like avoiding religious persecution. Their attempt to establish American ideals into areas that fell into the boundaries of Mexico or Great Britain created diplomatic crisis. The phrase Manifest Destiny was coined in 1845. It manifested the American belief that God has given them the right to expand their territories bec ause of their growing population. The largest acquisition took place in 1803 when America acquired Louisiana territory for $15 million. With this America got control over Mississippi River and the size of the nation became double. America was greatly affected by the era of expansion. The territorial expansions resulted in dividing the nation by causing diplomatic crisis, war and internal conflicts. The economic expansion that took place internally increased class differences and America began to be recognised as a Ã¢â¬Å"land of opportunity and upward mobilityÃ¢â¬ (Divine et.al, ch.8, 9, 13). II.Transportation Revolution During the first half of nineteenth century America experienced a growth in market economy. This was helped by development in the transportation sector which created an economic link between different parts of the nation and strengthened the national economy. It was the era of expansion in America when the nation expanded its territory towards the West. Most of the land in the east of Mississippi river became marketing centers to fulfill the needs of the farmers. There was a growing awareness among the political leaders regarding the need of connecting these distant areas with the rest of the nation through a well developed transport system. The initial focus was on developing the road network by building new highways and improving the older roads. Overland toll roads or turnpikes could not provide cheap transportation to cover long distances during bad weather because of their poor conditions. More economically efficient was the water transport. Many canals were constructed to estab lish links between the rivers Ohio and Mississippi as canals were cheaper to transport heavy agricultural goods than on poorly maintained roads and highways. The most important canal, the Erie Canal, was constructed in 1825. This canal helped in extending the commercial market to New York and this led to economic development in the region. There were also other improvements made on water transport. Steamboats became popular after they were invented in 1807 by Robert Fulton. (Divine et.al, ch.9) The growth of railroads in the 1840s and the 1850s reduced the importance of canals as primary means of freight transport. The expansion of the railroads helped the iron industry of America. It also facilitated financing of business sectors and paved the way for governments to provide land grants (Divine et.al, ch.13). III. Jackson presidential administrations During the 1820s and 1830s the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"self-made manÃ¢â¬ was celebrated in the political culture. It promoted the idea th at leaders of the
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Health Reforms in the U.S. and UK - Essay Example The countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ governments have indeed stated that the marginalised group of the society lacks proper healthcare due to the prevailing economic incapacities. Therefore, the governments feel the need to consider all citizens in offering healthcare services despite their societal status, races, demographic variability and economic variations. As a result, implementation of healthcare reforms in these countries has been given first priority (Weisfield, English & Claiborne 2012, p. 54). The aspects established in the reforms include cost reductions, quality enhancement criteria, patient satisfaction, stimulating ideal information technology approaches and improving overall service delivery in the health sector. Access to Health Care Individuals are entitled to efficient and effective healthcare services. In this case, the US advocates access to insurance cover that will cater for health-related issues. According to Tudor, the government ascertains that the reforms will further sec ure and ease the risk of loss for those with health insurance policies. On the contrary, the UK government advocates fair access to health services through the reforms. This emphasises the stringent measures over the health services delivered by private and public proprietors (Great Britain 2012, p. 78). The United Kingdom further advocates that proper health care systems will put patients into consideration, and to that extent, they will have the rights to express the types of services they seek. Most importantly, the UK reforms target to reshape and restructure the health system by approaching all societal groupings equally. In essence, the country understands the importance of all citizens and upholds their health as being significant to economic propulsion. The reforms consider improving the rate at which people gain access to health by allocating funds to the clinical commissioning groups and the founding of Public Health England. The bodies serve in intensifying health provisi on throughout the UK, thus reaching people in all dimensions nationwide. This aspect contrasts with the United States reforms, which imply that individuals ought to access insurance cover to stand viable to health services. On the other hand, the US government depicts that most of its citizens lack prompt access to health services due to high costs as compared to other nations. The reforms shall implement guaranteed access to the best health care among all citizens, thus enhancing social welfare. Through the reforms, the governments will subsidise the cost of insurance, hence making the policy cheaper and accessible by the marginalised group of the society (Truglio-Londrigan & Lewenson 2011, p. 49). An analytical approach portrayed that the US nation spends much on medical care but denies the citizens access because of the cost constraints. Therefore, suppressing the costs will propel health care throughout the nation. On the contrary, the UK government offers free health care throu ghout the nations, but inhibitions prevail over immigrants, and the time factor also matters since health facilities do not offer prompt services (Great Britain 2012, p. 79). Therefore, the UK reforms contrast with those of the US in accessibility to the extent that while one seeks to surpass costs, the other wishes to improve prompt delivery to all citizens despite their region and ethnicity. Health Quality Criteria A survey conducted upon the uninsured and insured patients inclusive of those
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Interventions for Smoking Cessation Introduction Health literacy is the Ã¢â¬Å"capacity to obtain, communicate, process, and understand basic health information and services to make appropriate health decisionsÃ¢â¬ (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). Smoking is a common addictive behavior and is bad for health status in many ways. According to World Health Organization (2014) tobacco kills nearly six million people per year. Therefore, it is important to promote peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health literacy of smoking through effective intervention to improve health condition. Brief intervention is an effective method to deliver suitable information and increase the motivation of clients to change the substance use (Substance abuse and mental health service, 2014). Nurses can make good use of brief intervention to improve the health literacy among clients with resultant better health outcomes. This essay will firstly describe the potential health impacts of smoking on individual in Australia and globally. Secondly, it will use a case to analyze the smoking through stage of change model and discuss three approaches to change the behavior. Thirdly, it will choose the most sustainable strategy to provide health literacy to the client. Lastly, I will discuss how changing a singles personÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior can contribute to global health. Overview of smoking Cigarette contains more than 7,000 chemical substances and most of them are harmful to our body. Once inhaled into the lung, these chemical compounds will be carried to all the tissues of our body through blood (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). Smoking will impair the normal growth and function of the cells and result in cancer tumor growth. Research showed that smoking can cause many kinds of cancers in our body such as larynx, lung, mouth, nose, and throat cancer (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010). For the cardiovascular system, smoking will damage our blood vessels with plaque formation and produce thicker vessel walls and narrower lumen. Therefore, smoking is a major risk factor for stroke and coronary heart disease (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010). Smoking also causes damage to the respiratory system, especially the airway and alveoli. The research showed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease including emphysema and ch ronic bronchitis are most commonly related to smoking. In addition, smoking will also affect the fertility and immune system and increase the chance to have type 2 diabetes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). Last but not least, secondhand smoke causes adverse effects such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases to the peers, family and community. In conclusion, smoking might impact the whole body and result in serious health problem. According to World Health Organization (2014), smoking is related to more than 6 million peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s death; 5 million die directly due to tobacco use and 600,000 people die from exposure to secondhand smoke. In Australia, around 3.1 million people (19.5%) are current smokers aged over 18 years old and among them 20.4% male and 16.3% female are daily smokers (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011). Smoking was responsible for 20% of cancer death in Australia and around 45,000 hospitalisations in New South Wales were related to smoking (Cancer Council NSW, 2013). In addition, nearly 600,000 people (3.6%) reported at risk of having heart disease and other chronic conditions due to using tobacco products (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2013). Smoking is a common unhealthy behavior not only in Australia but all over the world and contributes to many diseases and death. Incident of smoking Mr. C is a 55 year old man who comes from Taiwan and works as an accountant in a computer company. He had a history of smoking around 30 years since graduated from senior high school. He usually smokes 10-12 cigarettes a day. Mr. C has the medical history of type 2 diabetes. He believes that smoking can help him release the stress and anxiety. He really enjoys the moment of smoking and states that smoking can stimulate thinking. However, Mr. C developed productive cough recently and had shortness of breath when climbing the stairs. He went to see a general practitioner and the physician informed him that the productive cough and shortness of breath are related to smoking. Therefore, the general practitioner gave Mr. C a handbook about the information of smoking and suggested him to quit smoking. After seeing the general practitioner, Mr. C read through the handbook and tried to search the internet for relevant information. He also discussed with his family and all of his family suppo rted him to quit smoking. Mr. C hesitated about stopping smoking. Because he thought that smoking was a good method for him to relieve the stress and serve as a social skill to maintain the relationship with friends and colleagues. In addition, he also considers that to quit smoking will be a long process and takes a lot of time to give up smoking and will incur a lot of physical discomfort. Mr. C is now feeling ambivalent about quitting smoking but he wants the symptoms such as productive cough and shortness of breath to go away. Therefore, he still considers smoking to be an enjoyable hobbit and cannot really give up smoking. Stage of change model Stage of change model (Transtheoretical model) is a theory of behavior change which was developed by Prochaska and DiClemente. It contains 5 stages of changes: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance (Australia government Department of health, 2004; Prochaska, DiClemente Norcross, 1992, p. 1103). Stage of change model is a good method to assess the readiness of clients to change the additive behavior such as smoking (Mallin, 2002, p. 1107). According to Prochaska, DiClemente and Norcross (1992, p.1103), contemplation is the stage that clients are aware the adverse effects due to the behavior and consider to change, however have not determined to establish a plan of action. In this incident, Mr. C has some physical discomfort such as productive cough and shortness of breath during the activity. Therefore, Mr. C went to a general practitioner for the assessment and found out that smoking was the root cause of the symptoms. Mr. C started to search the infor mation about smoking and also discussed with his family. However, Mr. C did not make a promise to quit smoking. Due to these features, Mr. C is at the stage of contemplation. Another concept of the contemplation stage is that patient is ambivalent about the advantage and disadvantage of the behavior (Prochaska, DiClemente Norcross, 1992, p. 1103). The client realizes the behavior will be harmful to the health condition but still considers the behavior to be with value (Australia government Department of health, 2004). In this case, Mr. C states that smoking is a good method for him to relieve the stress and a social tool to maintain the relationship with friends and colleagues. He did not want to give up this 30 years hobbit. However, Mr. C also wanted to improve the symptoms. Mr. C is hesitated in making the decision to quit smoking. Therefore, it is obvious that Mr. C is at the stage of contemplation. Multiple approaches to change smoking Motivational interviewing is a counseling technique which can assist clients to increase the motivation to change the addictive behavior (Miller, 2010, p. 247; Ridner, Cloud, Ostapchuk, Myers, Jorayeva Ling, 2014, p. 314). Clients can be explored and their ambivalence could be resolved about quitting smoking through motivational interviewing (Lai, Cahill, Qin Tang, 2010). The four principles of motivational interviewing are expression of empathy, develop discrepancy, roll with resistance and support self-efficacy (Miller, 2010, p. 248). During the motivational interviewing, nurses can understand the ambivalent feelings of the clients, the difficulties of changing and discuss the advantage and disadvantage of quitting smoking with clients. In addition, it might enhance the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to change. Nurses might use the reflective listening, open-ended questions, affirmation and summarization techniques to understand the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ position and have good communication (M iller, 2010, p. 249; New South Wales Department of Health, 2005). A research (Ridner, Cloud, Myers, Jorayeva Ling, 2014) found out that after the motivational interviewing, the patients smoked less cigarettes, had a higher score of self-efficacy and lower nicotine dependence. Soria, Legido, Escolano, Lopez Yeste and Montoya (2006) pointed out that motivational interviewing group has higher success rate compared to anti-smoking advice group. In addition, the article also showed that motivational interviewing could help clients move to the next stage of change model. The above evidence showed that motivational interviewing is an effective brief intervention to increase the motivation of clients to seek the health information of smoking and its treatment, and therefore, increase the willingness of quitting. 5As (ask, assess, advice, assist and arrange) is a brief intervention to increase the motivation of the patient with addictive behavior (DiClemente, Delahanty, Kofeldt, Dixon, Goldberg Lucksted, 2011, p. 261). The first step is to ask the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s smoking behavior and obtain the basic information about the client. Secondly, the readiness and motivation of clients to quit smoking will be assessed. In this step, stages of change model is a good tool to assess the motivation of client. Then, nurses can deliver the advice to the clients about the pros and cons of health on smoking followed by provision of the effective tips for clients to quit smoking. Fourthly, assist the clients to increase the motivation about quitting smoking and encourage patient to quit smoking. Lastly, the nurses should arrange the follow-up program to provide further support (Dawson, Noller Skinner, 2013, p. 132; Scanlon, 2006, p. 25 26). A study conducted 5As intervention at the mental health community center to the patients with smoking behavior in the community. They found following the implementation of 5As, the rate of tobacco use decreased and more people quit smoking (Dixon et al., 2009). Therefore, 5As is an effective brief intervention to assist clients to quit smoking through enhancing their motivations and providing necessary support. Nurses are the most important health education provider, who delivers education to the clients. The research showed that good health education program can increase the smoking caseation rate. Health education can provide the impacts on health and lead to the change the attitude of using cigarette (Salaudeen, Musa, Akande Bolarinwa, 2011, p. 217). Internet is a very useful tool to enhance the effectiveness of health education and promotion. According to Dijk, Nooijer, Heinrich and Vries (2007, p. 122), they found out that the knowledge of tobacco cessation will be delivered better through the internet to the clients. The internet is the preferred education method of adolescents and teenagers. The interviewer indicated that the web site contains the colorful pictures and interesting animation which will increase the motivation to learn and understand information of quitting smoking and also stimulate the client to take action. Therefore, the health education delivery through the inter net is a good intervention to spread the health information and increase the health literacy of the clients. The sustainable strategy to the incident In this incident, motivational interviewing is the most sustainable brief intervention for Mr. C to improve health literacy and result in quitting smoking. Mr. C had noticed that he has some symptoms such as shortness of breath and productive cough which impact his health condition. However, he is still considering the benefits that he gets from smoking including relieve the stress and anxiety and the social tool to maintain the relationship with peers and collogues. He is ambivalence about take action to change. Therefore, nurses can use motivational interviewing to assist client to evaluate the pons and cons of quitting smoking. Encourage patient to express his idea and identify the barrier of quitting smoking. In addition, nurses can assist the client to resolve the ambivalence and difficulties which lead to higher motivation to quit smoking. In this stage, there is no apparent health problem on Mr. C, therefore, he did not seriously consider that quitting smoking is an urgent matter for him. During the motivational interviewing, the nurses can provide adverse effects on health to the patient and assist patient to image the healthier future without smoking. Thus, he may seek the related information actively. Motivational interviewing may enhance the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation to obtain the health information and make the correct decision. Therefore, motivational interviewing is an effective brief intervention which can increase the health literacy and more willing to quit smoking. Global Health Dijk, Nooijer, Heinrich and Vries (2007, p. 115) indicated that the clients have smoking behavior will easily influence othersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude of smoking. The smoking cessation rate is higher in the family whose member has already quit smoking. Accordingly, the concept of stop smoking can be delivered from individuals to their peers, family even the whole community. When the concept of quit smoking can be deeply installed in everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s thought, as a result the occurrence of smoking-related disease will be decrease. The World Health Assembly (2013) pointed out that if the tobacco cessation rate decrease 30%, it will decrease 200 million death related to smoking in 2050. In addition, secondhand smoke can also be decreased. As the result, the overall health of population in the world can be improved. Therefore a single persons behavior change can be a big contribution of the improvement of the global health. Conclusion Smoking is a common unhealthy behavior which will cause adverse effects not only to the individual but also the whole society. Therefore, it is important for nurses to use different approaches to encourage clients to quit smoking. Motivational intervention is a counseling technique which can increase the motivation of the client to take action to give up smoking. 5As is an evidence-based intervention that can help clients to quit smoking through increase willingness and provide essential support. In addition, using internet can increase the effeteness of health education delivery. The incident in this essay is at the contemplation of the stage of change models. Motivational intervention is a sustainable brief intervention for this case which can improve the health literacy and encourage him to stop smoking. The concepts of quitting smoking can delivery from individual to family, peers and community. Consequently, these approaches can improve the health literacy and result in increasi ng the tobacco cessation rate and improve the health status of global.
Monday, January 20, 2020
The Case of Billy Frank Vickers According to the article, Prosecutors Doubt Inmate Confession True, by Angela K. Brown, Billy Frank Vickers, condemned inmate, received a lethal injection on Wednesday night January 28, 2004 for a 1993 murder after confessing that he was involved in about a dozen other crimes, including the shootings that placed a cloud of suspicion over Davis for three decades (Brown). Jack Strickland, a former prosecutor in the Davis case, said he had never heard of Vickers and that his claims were a last-ditch attempt to get attention and monkey around with the system. Now the question arises of whether lethal injection was the best option for punishing Billy Frank Vickers, not because he is innocent, but because of the question of whether it is humane to take away someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life by inserting chemicals into his or her body that may cause more pain than can ever be imagined. I personally believe that there is no justifiable reason to give someone the death penalty as a form of punishment. In the minds of the American public and jurors in capital cases the perception of lethal injection is of a clean, clinical, and painless end. As stated in the article, Lethal Injection, seventy-one percent of those responding to a 2001 survey considered injection to be the least cruel form of execution (Lethal Injection). This perception is an advantage to the state because the public is much more willing to accept execution in this form and jurors are more willing to convict and pass the death sentence. At times it is understood why the death penalty would be considered in cases. Maybe the people are a threat to not only society but also to themselves, and need to be put to death so they can do no harm to anyone. Vickers gunned down a grocery store owner who was probably trying to make a living for himself and his family. Now this man is gone; his family is left in agony, and maybe Vickers deserves to die. Some people may say an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, but do two wrongs make a right? Some people may consider the death penalty as inhumane. As stated in the article, Naked City, by Rita Radostitz, Texas uses three chemicals in the lethal injection process: sodium thiopental (an extremely short-term anesthetic), pancuronium bromide (which paralyses the diaphragm and other muscles so the inmate is unable to move or speak, even if he is in pain), and potassium chloride (which stops the heart).
Saturday, January 11, 2020
The Monroe doctrine was essentially intended to prevent the Western Hemisphere off-limits to European colonization. European powers would attempt to restore SpainÃ¢â¬â¢s former colonies, attempts would be viewed as a hostile act against the U. S Second Continental Congress intercolonial assembly that met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775; all thirteen colonies were represented; still wanted to just get British acts repealed and wrote new appeals to British people and king, but raised money to create an army and navy Articles of Confederation Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the Articles established the United States of America. The Articles granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The result was a poorly defined national state that couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t govern the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789 Battles of Lexington and Concord The battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense in 1776; helped American public recognize the need to separate from the crown Lexington and Concord the first battle of the Revolutionary War in April 1775; twenty thousand musket-bearing Ã¢â¬Å"Minute MenÃ¢â¬ swarmed around Boston, thehre to coop up the outnumbered British Yorktown where Cornwallis was forced to surrender his entire force of seven thousand men on October 19, 1781 to Washington and de Grasse Saratoga where Burgoyne was forced to surrender his entire command on Octor 17, 1777 to American general Horatio Gates Treaty of Paris- 1783 treaty in which British formally recognized the independence of the United States; granted generous boundaries (Mississippi River to Great Lakes to Spanish Florida plus a share in the priceless fisheries on Newfoundland); Americans could no longer persecute Loyalists and had to restore their property to them; states vowed to put no lawful obstacles in the way of debt-collecting from British George Washington selected by the Second Continental Congress to head the improvised colonial army in Boston; had very little experience, but was of good character and was a Virginian (eased southern colonists minds about creating a big New England army); led the battle at Trenton Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 based on Richard Henry LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s resolution; formally approved by Congress on July 4, 1776 Alexander Hamilton Hamilton emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, Alexander Hamilton spearheaded the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States. Alien and Sedition Acts A series of laws that sought to restrict the activities of people who opposed Federalist policies (1798) Dorothea Dix Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients Ã¢â¬â created first wave of US mental asylums Federalists Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. The Federalist influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention. Indian removal act This act granted the president funds and authority to remove Native Americans (1830) The XYZ Affair Three French agents asked for over ten million dollars in tribute before they would begin diplomatic talks with America. When Americans heard the news, they were outraged. Adams decided to strengthen the Navy to show France that America was a force to be reckoned with Treaty of Ghent: Treaty that ended the War of 1812 and maintained prewar conditions Treaty of Guadalupe -HidalgoEnded Mexican War Ã¢â¬â US received Texas (with Rio Grande border) and other states Ã¢â¬â US paid Mexico $15 million dollars Treaty of Paris (1763):The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years War in Europe and the parallel French and Indian War in North America. Under the treaty, Britain won all of Canada and almost all of the modern United States east of the Mississippi. Virginia Plan The Virginia Plan was presented to the Constitutional Convention and proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. The Virginia Plan favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice. In opposition, the small states proposed the New Jersey Plan. In the end, the two sides found common ground through the Connecticut Compromise. William Lloyd Garrison White Abolitionist Ã¢â¬â Early 1800s Ã¢â¬â ublished The Liberator The Jay Treaty Treaty in which Britain agreed to evacuate its posts on the US western frontier (1794) The Pinckney Treaty Treaty with Spain which opened trade and redefined Florida boundary (1795) Tariff of Abominations 1828 Ã¢â ¬â Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated stateÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. Missouri Compromise Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36? 0Ã¢â¬ ² within the Louisiana Territory (1820) Henry ClayÃ¢â¬â¢s American System Plan for economic growth: establish a protective tariff, establish a national bank, and improve the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s transporation system Embargo Act In response to impressment, this bill halted all foreign trade with disastrous economic consequences (1807) Articles of Confederation Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the Articles established the United States of America. The Articles granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The resu lt was a poorly defined national state that couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t govern the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789 Whigs The Whigs were originally colonists supporting independence. In the mid 1830s, the Whig Party opposed JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s strong-armed leadership style and policies. The Whigs promoted protective tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and other measures that strengthened the central government. Reaching its height of popularity in the 1830s, the Whigs disappeared from the national political scene by the 1850s. The Whiskey Rebellion group of farmers refused to pay federal excise tax on whiskey, Washington responds decisively with troops (1794) John Locke believed all people have a right to life, liberty, and property; stated the government is Ã¢â¬Å"created by the people for the peopleÃ¢â¬ Sons of Liberty A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere. Crispus Attucks One of the first men to die in the Boston Massacre. 1770 Battle of Bunker Hill May 1775 Tiny American force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold surprised and captured the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point in Upper New York. Gunpowder and artillary for the siege at Boston was obtained. June 1775 Colonists siezed Bunker Hill (BreedÃ¢â¬â¢s Hill). Americans numbering 1500 soldiers slaughtered the advancing redcoats. Colonists were short on gunpowder and were foced to abandon the hill. Daniel Shays led a rebellion because farmers were unable to pay in Continental Dollars and banks were foreclosing farms in Massachusetts. checks and balances created because of the bicameral legislature. A system that ensured that no particular branch of government gained too much power over another. It demonstrated the fear of absolute power in one group/individual as well as preventing one branch from overpowering the others. Constitutional Convention convenes to revise Articles of Confederation, suggested that a new Constitution be written. Land Ordinance of 1785 land in the northwest would be surveyed and then sold to help pay debt. Great Compromise aka the Connecticut Plan, combined the Large State Plan and the Small State PlanÃ¢â¬ ¦ created the bicameral legislature (House of Representatives and Senate). ShayÃ¢â¬â¢s Rebellion 1786-1787 farmers couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay their debts with Continental Dollars, banks were foreclosing farms in Massachusetts, rebellion led by Daniel ShaysÃ¢â¬ ¦ articles need to be revised. Bank of the United States 1791, gives sense of unity, debt shouldered by federal government, place to keep money. 3/5 Compromise It was a compromise between the northern states with the southern ones that decided that although slaves were not citizens, each one would count as 3/5 of a man for representation. It got Southern states to ratify the constitution. Federalist Papers The papers were a collection of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison explaining how the new government/constitution would work. Their purpose was to convince the New York state legislature to ratify the constitution, which it did. Judiciary Act of 1789 established a Supreme Court and district courts (1789) Publius Elderly senator who witnesses the assassination; Brutus sends him out to tell the citizens that no one else will be harmed Bill Of Rights Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens. Marbury v. Madison(1803) Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. established judicial review Thomas Jefferson A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality War of 1812 Resulted from BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army (1812 Ã¢â¬â 1815) The Louisiana Purchase U. S. acquisition of the Louisiana territory from France in 1803 for $15 million. The purchase secured American control of the Mississippi river and doubled the size of the nation. The Lewis and Clark Expidition Overland expedition to the Pacific coast lead by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Commissioned by President Jefferson, the expedition of the far west brought back a wealth of scientific data about the country and its resources. 804-1806 War Hawks Congressional leaders who in 1811/1812 called for war against Britain to respect Americ aÃ¢â¬â¢s maritime rights. Samuel Slater Father of the Factory System in America. Skelled British mechanic of 21 who was attracted by bounties being offered to British workers familiar with the textile machines. Industrial Revolution The period where western expansion and urbanization happened in America distinguished by factories, new inventors improved transportation, communication and production. Ã¢â¬Å"Lowell SystemÃ¢â¬ Developed in the textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, in the 1820s, in these factories as much machinery as possible was used, so that few skilled workers were needed in the process, nd the workers were almost all single young farm women, who worked for a few years and then returned home to be housewives. DeWitt Clinton Governor whose grand project was the Erie Canal which linked the Great Lakes to the Hudson River. John Quincy Adams Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly AdamsÃ¢â¬â¢ work. Abolitionism The militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830s to the Civil War. John C. Calhoun Part of the Ã¢â¬Å"immortal trioÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"Great Nullifer, proposed to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give the south its right as a minority view that presidents elected, one from south and one from north. Ã¢â¬ Frederick Douglas Self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star. Grimke Sisters Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement. Horace Mann Brilliant and idealistic graduate of Brown University. Secretary of Massachusettes Board of Education, campaigned effectively for more and better school houses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum. Elizabeth Cady Stanton Mother of seven who had insisted on leaving Ã¢â¬Å"obeyÃ¢â¬ out of her marriage ceremony, shocked fellow feminists by going so far as to advocate suffrage for women. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights Convention Convention for women advocates at Seneca Falls to rewrite the Declaration of Independence to include women. Ã¢â¬Å"All men and women are created equalÃ¢â¬ -Declaration of Sentiments Declaration of Sentiments Revision of the Declaration of Independence to include women and men (equal). It was the grand basis of attaining civil, social, political, and religious rights for women. Susan B. Anthony Militant lecturer for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights who fearlessly exposed herself to rotten garbage and vulgar epithets. Transcendentalism Belief in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions. Ralph Waldo Emerson Leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance, spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the abolitionists. Henry David Thoreau Transcendentalist and friend of Emerson who lived alone on Walden Pond with only $8 a year from 1845-1847 and wrote about it in Walden. On Civil Disobedience, he inspired social and political reformers because he had refused to pay a poll tax in protest of slavery and the Mexican-American War, and spent a night in jail. Extreme individualist and advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance). Margaret Fuller Social reformer, leader in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movement and a transcendentalist. Edited Ã¢â¬Å"The DialÃ¢â¬ which was the publication of the transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted Ã¢â¬Å"perfect freedomÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"progress in philosophy and theology and hope that the future will not always be as the pastÃ¢â¬ . Alamo- Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force. San Jacinto- surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa AnaÃ¢â¬â¢s camp on April 21, 1836. Santa AnaÃ¢â¬â¢s men were surprised and overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas independence. Mexico 1500 dead 1000 captured Texans 4 dead.
Friday, January 3, 2020
Organized crime involves the illicit flow of goods and services in one direction and the flow of the profits of crime in the other. Technology has created much change in the way organized crime groups conduct operations. It has also caused law enforcement organizations to evolve and use a variety of techniques and methods to effectively combat organized crime groups. In order for law enforcement to effectively target and prosecute these groups they must adapt as the organized crime groups have in their use of technology. Many operations run by organized crime groups and law enforcement organizations require the use of some type of technology. The dynamics of technology have made it an advantage for organized crime groups who useÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Organized crime has benefited from globalization as much as businesses because now criminal groups are able to operate internationally with ease just like businesses do. Globalization has led to organized crime groups struc ture transforming from vertical and horizontal hierarchies to a large number of loosely connected networks. Each group within the network is involved in numerous activities from legal to illegal. In essence an incident at one location could have a significant impact on operations for that group across the world (Milan et al, 2008). Technology has also boosted the effects of globalization across the world. In particular the advancements in transportation and the telecommunications. Transportation has facilitated the mass movement of goods and people across the globe which has not only benefited business but especially organized crime groups. The advancements in transportation has enabled organized crime groups to increase their operations in narcotics trafficking, weapons trafficking, and human trafficking. Many groups such as the American mafia and Russian mafia would not be able to accomplish their operations without being able to control or manipulate shipping manifests or c orrupting officials allowing their operations to run smoothly. Although transportation has had a major impact, telecommunication has had the most impact on organized crime. The evolution of theShow MoreRelatedThe Fight Organized Crime Regime1692 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSince the beginning of the 21st century, organized crime has grown in complexity. With this new era, law enforcement has been made to change and improve the ways in which they try and fight organized crime. With the use of technology, the new organized crime regime have used technology to its advantage and are seen as a very real threat to US law enforcement. Most members of law enforcement, anti-mafia NGOs and academic and journalistic analysts insist upon the fact that from the mid-1990Ã¢â¬â¢s on upRead MoreTransnational Crimes Are The Organization And Implementation Of Unlawful Business Ventures1337 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTransnational crimes are the organization and implementation of unlawful business ventures by a group of individuals working in more than one country. TransnationalÃ¢â¬â¢s are able to reposition at any time, make choices based on relative global employment and capitalize on new prospects. These inviduals play a major role in the globalization of transnational crimes and contributes tremendously in organized crimes. Transnational criminals have been one of the largest beneficiaries of globalization. OverRead MoreHistorical Development of Police Agencies Essay1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesby money, and lost focus on enforcing the law. Policing was considered reactive in nature. This began to change as did society, in dustrialism and urbanization, brought with it a rise in crime, causing police to shift towards a more proactive approach to law enforcement. In the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s new technologies began another change with better response times and communications. The 20th century brought even more technologies which continue to aid law enforcement today. This era also brought to the attentionRead MoreImpact Of Technology In Law Enforcement1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Technology has been changing for years. It has been improving and it has been improving very fast. Technology place a big role in law enforcement. Before all the improvements in technology it was usually the officerÃ¢â¬â¢s words against the subjects. That has change dramatically. Law enforcement personal wear cameras on their body to record their encounters with the people they are dealing with. This helps with the safety of the officers and also the people they are dealing with. Technology has alsoRead MoreThe Causes Of Drug Trafficking991 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe crime I chose is drug trafficking. Drug Trafficking has affected nearly every inch of the world. Drug trafficking has brought untold riches to criminals and has left almost everything else in society tainted. Drug Trafficking has affected both the minority and majority members around the globe. Every country in the world criminalÃ¢â¬â¢s groups seem to have their hand in the drug trade. Even though almost every countr y criminalÃ¢â¬â¢s organization has their hand in the drug trade it is the unstable countriesRead More The F.B.I. Essay1111 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe F.B.I. To uphold the law through the investigation of violations of federal criminal law; to protect the U.S. from foreign intelligence and terrorist activities; to provide leadership and law enforcement assistance to federal, state, local, and international agencies; and to perform these responsibilities in a manner that is responsive to the needs of the public and is faithful to the constitution of the U.S.: this is the mission of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The agency nowRead MoreThe Effects Of Illicit Drugs On The Nation s Rate Of Violent Crime1735 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrate of violent crime. Not long ago, the picture was not so positive. The use of illicit drugs began to be more widespread, and governments at all levels responded by strengthening enforcement forces against drug law violators, attempting to block illegal drugs at the borders, working with other countries to take down the criminal organizations that produce and distribute drugs, and increasing efforts to reduce demand for drugs (Dept. of Justice, 2005). In addition, serious crimes, including violentRead MoreCounterfeit Goods And The Global Market1590 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestraveling through borders are highly regulated according to the Customs Regulation. Nonetheless, BelgiumÃ¢â¬â¢s central points of entry and concern include the harbours of Antwerp, Zeebrugge, and Ghent.2 On account of this susceptibility, Belgium passed a law in 2009 criminalizing the transfer of pir ated goods as well as established the creation of a Ã¢â¬Å"CybersquadÃ¢â¬ for the purpose of online detection.2 This subsequently resulted in the termination of 328 internet domains by the FPS Economy branch of the governmentRead MoreRole Of The Thief Takers During Early Civilizations913 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1. Fifth-century- Organized police departments were rare in early civilizations. Rome created the first specialized investigate unit. These units were known as Questors, or trackers of murder. Also around this time Roman emperor Augustus picked special, highly qualified members of the military to form the Praetorian Guard which could be considered the first police officers. Their job was to protect the palace and the emperor. Vigiles were known as early roman firefighters and were eventuallyRead MorePolice Academy Training Program Must Go Beyond Arrest Procedures1370 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesabout the COP concept (Goldstein, 1993). The management team should be the first ones t o be trained in the new style of COP leadership. By adopting the training consciously through daily interaction it is considered most effective training. Law enforcement needs to focus on learning techniques of problem analysis and strategies for solutions. Another area that should be focused on is conducting follow-up training regarding areas of public speaking, mental health issues, and creative problem solving
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Ã¢â¬ËPeaceÃ¢â¬â¢ as a concept is seen through the lens of the fundamental problems faced by the world today: war, armed conflict and political violence. By insinuation, peace itself is understood predominantly as a negative concept, or as the absence of these phenomena (Atack, 2009). Martin Luther King said that Ã¢â¬ËTrue peace is not merely the absence of some negative force - tension, confusion or war; it is the presence of some positive force - justice, good will and brotherhoodÃ¢â¬â¢ (King, 1957). Indeed, peace should focus on the positive social and political phenomena such as integrity, equality and wellbeing. In order to create a peaceful world, humans have to strive for positive peace, a condition brought about by establishing standards of justice, human rights, and sustainable development in beloved communities (Harris, 1996, p. 386). Gandhiji too described his ideas of peace with a focus on the positive, according to him peace includes: (i) Peace implies the capacity to live together in harmony. (ii) The creation of non-violent social systems, i.e., a society free from structural violence. (iii) The absence of exploitation and injustice of every kind. (iv) International cooperation and understanding. (v) Ecological balance and conservation. (vi) Peace of mind, or the psycho-spiritual dimension of peace. (NCERT, 2006) These positive views of peace lead us beyond the limited negative associations the notion is centered around. It is important to understand that the conceptShow MoreRelatedPolitical Philosophy And The Role It Plays Today1598 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPhilosophy? And the Role it Plays Today Savannah Dye 9/17/2015 Ã¢â¬Æ' Ã¢â¬Å"Political philosophyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"political theoryÃ¢â¬ are versatile, yet relative terms. Ironically, the most unifying aspect of both definitions is their fluidity. One of the only things that theorists concur on is the purpose of a political theory, which is to incite change to a certain degree. The intention of political theorists and political philosophers alike is to unveil the deeper problems in our world, and to emphasize the importanceRead MoreThe Birth of Religions and Philosophies in the Ancient World1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Birth of Religions and Philosophies in the Ancient World From the beginning of time, people all over the world have wondered where we come from, what our divine purpose in life is, and what we can expect after death. Questions about right and wrong, society and government, and nature and the cosmos, are some of the few wonders that ultimately created some of the earliest philosophies and religions, helping people find peace and explanation to the vast curiosity that still troubles us in modernRead MoreThe Advantages of Conscription1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageskeep the current all-volunteer system of draftees, it would be economically and militarily beneficial to re-impose the draft. As a country prepares to go to war, they are faced with the dilemma of ensuring that they have a sufficient number of trained army personnel to carry out any missions they feel are necessary. The problem that sometimes arises is that the military finds itself understaffed, while already on the eve of war. This results in a scramble to recruit and train battle ready men, whileRead MoreThe Role of United Nations in 21st Century4626 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pagescountries have joined together to work for world peace and against poverty and injustice. The UN was established as a result of a conference in San Francisco in June 1945 by 51 countries committed to preserving peace through international cooperation and collective security. Today, nearly every state in the world belongs to the UN - 191 countries in all. UN headquarters are located in New York City.Ã Ã¢â¬ ¨Ã¢â¬ ¨ The UN is not a world government, and it does not make laws.Read MoreDeconstruct ing the Constructivism1986 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesconstructivism The paradox of the norm Deconstructing the subject is first to analyses historically, the formation of different layers that have build the concept of the subject. When deconstruct the subject, it is important to analyze all the hidden assumption that are implied with the philosophical, ethical, theatrical and the political use of the concept of the subject. Deconstructivist came to the public notice with 1982, the Parc de la Villette in Paris by Bernard TschumiÃ¢â¬â¢s winning gantry. DeconstructivismRead MoreThe Conflict Resolution : Peace1927 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesWhat is peace ? To some it is freedom of disturbance and to others it is the presence of tranquility. To those that study the field of conflict resolution, peace is seen as a concept that can be viewed as either negative or positive. Negative peace is the absence of war while positive peace is the integration of human society (Galtung). Though positive peace is the ideal standard that most would like to hold the world to, it is negative peace that is most present in society. Negative peace thoughRead MoreThe Conflict Resolution : Peace2586 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesWhat is peace? To some it is freedom of the disturbance and to others it is the presence of tranquility. To those that study the field of conflict resolution, peace is a concept that can be viewed as either negativ e or positive. Negative peace is the absence of war while positive peace is the integration of human society (Galtung). Though positive peace is the ideal standard that most would like to hold the world to, it is negative peace that is most present in society. Negative peace, though havingRead MoreAll About Peace Education13195 Words Ã |Ã 53 PagesABOUT PEACE EDUCATION *Dr. Ajay Kumar Attri, Lecturer; Department of Education, MLSM College ; Sundernagar; Mandi (H.P) Ã¢Å¾ ¢ INTRODUCTION: Education shall be directed toward the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. Read More The Importance of the United Nations Security Council Essay2137 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesresponsibility, under the Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and securityÃ¢â¬ (UNSecurity Council 2010). The end of the 1980s and the 1990s has been marked by major changes in international relations, both as practice and as an academic discipline. The collapse of the multi-polar system in the world politics, fall of the Berlin Wall, the end of the Cold War and the beginning of some state level wars transformed the international peace affairs with the Security Council in the international cooperationRead MoreIs Liberal Internationalism Utopian, Or Does It Offer A Credible Alternative?2936 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesorder to maintain both world order and create harmony for its state to live in by democratic means. In R GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Comeback of Liberal Internationalisms he defines this by very similar means, suggesting this political tradition relies on Ã¢â¬Å"the necessity of leadership by political democraciesÃ¢â¬ . Following the onset of the 20th century the international political sphere has been characterised by the creations of institutions which have sought to establish a de mocratic peace and in many ways often